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Wastewater treatment plants and release: The vase of Odin for emerging bacterial contaminants, resistance and determinant of environmental wellness

Igere, B.E.
Okoha, A.I.
Nwodo, U.U.
Municipal wastewater consists of a downstream collection of flushed sewage (without solid waste), other household runoffs, industrial runoffs, hospital runoffs and agricultural runoffs through an underground pipe before treatment. A runoff collection system called the wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) treats such wastewater before release into environment following specific regulatory standards. This years-long practice has been improved upon by adding end-to-end pipe technologies with a view to enhancing the quality of effluent released. However, effluents released into the environment from design/application of WWTPs appear to contain emerging contaminants of both biotic and abiotic nature. The observation of chemical contaminants, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and diverse pathogenic bacteria genera in wastewater works release further affirm the abundance of such emerging contaminants. As a result, the government and water regulatory organizations in various part of the world are considering the removal of water reuse act from recycling policy/process. Current global debate is focused on questions about sustenance of any improved additional treatment level; effect of energy consumption by added treatment stage and its impact on the environmental wellness as contaminants borne wastewater is consistently released. Technological advancement/research suggests implementation of newer innovative infrastructural systems (NIIS) such as Mobbing Bed Biofilm Rector (MBBR), for wastewater effluent management which involve addition of newer wastewater treatment stages. This review addressed current pitfalls including wastewater microbiota of high epidemiological/public health relevance and affirms the need for such improvement which requires modification of ongoing institutional framework with a view to encourage implementation of NIIS for an improved effluent release. Exploiting the advances of microbial biofilming and the potentials of microbial biofueling as discussed in various section promises a future of robust environmental system, stable operational standard, release of quality effluent and sustainable management of wastewater works. Application of the aforementioned would enhance quality WWTPs release and in-defacto reduces spread of ARB/ARGs as well as impacts both the environment wellness and public health.
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Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs),Municipal waste,Energy,Newer innovative infrastructural systems (NIIS),Wastewater effluents quality,Wastewater regulatory organization,Solid waste
Bright E. Igere, Anthony I. Okoh, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Wastewater treatment plants and release: The vase of Odin for emerging bacterial contaminants, resistance and determinant of environmental wellness, Emerging Contaminants,
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