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Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with blood pressure and hypertension over 10-Years in black South African Adults undergoing nutritional transition

Zec, M.M
Schutte, A.E
Ricci, C
Baumgartner, J
Kruger, I.M
Smuts, C.M
Nutritional transition in Africa is linked with increased blood pressure (BP). We examined 10-year fatty acid status and longitudinal associations between individual long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), BP and status of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg and/or medication use) in black South Africans. We included 300 adults (>30 years) participating in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study, and analysed data from three consecutive examinations (2005, 2010 and 2015 study years). Fatty acids in plasma phospholipids were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We applied sequential linear mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized mixed models for the hypertension outcome, in the complete sample and separately in urban and rural subjects. Mean baseline systolic/diastolic BP was 137/89 mmHg. Ten-year hypertension status increased among rural (48.6% to 68.6%, p = 0.001) and tended to decrease among urban subjects (67.5% to 61.9%, p = 0.253). Regardless of urbanisation, n-6 PUFA increased and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) decreased over the 10-years. Subjects in the highest tertile of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) had 3.81 mmHg lower systolic (95% confidence interval (CI): −7.07, −0.54) and 3.82 mmHg lower diastolic BP (DBP) (95% CI: −5.70, −1.95) compared to the reference tertile, irrespective of lifestyle and clinical confounders. Similarly, osbond acid (C22:5 n-6) was inversely associated with DBP. Over the 10-years, subjects in the highest EPA tertile presented with +2.92 and +1.94 mmHg higher SBP and DBP, respectively, and with 1.46 higher odds of being hypertensive. In black South African adults, individual plasma n-6 PUFA were inversely associated with BP, whereas EPA was adversely associated with hypertension, supporting implementation of dietary fat quality in national cardiovascular primary prevention strategies.
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Black Africans,PUFA,Blood pressure,Hypertension,Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids,Longitudinal study,Nutritional transition
Zec MM, Schutte AE, Ricci C, Baumgartner J, Kruger IM, Smuts CM. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with blood pressure and hypertension over 10-years in black South African adults undergoing nutritional transition. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 2019 Sep 06;8(9):E394. doi: 10.3390/foods8090394
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