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Inflammatory cytokines and combined biomarker panels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Enhancing diagnostic accuracy

Kruger, D
Yako, Y.Y
Devar, J
Lahoud, N
Smith, M
Early diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is challenged by the absence of accurate early diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. CA19-9 is the established, diagnostic tumour marker in PDAC, despite its limitations. Effective primary screening using circulating biomarker panels have only been considered in a handful of studies and we investigated whether combinations of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors in multivariate logistic models could facilitate earlier diagnosis in our South African setting. Methods Plasma levels of 38 cytokines and angiogenic factors were measured in 131 Black South African patients, 85 with PDAC, 25 with benign biliary pathology (BBP) and 21 benign non-HPB controls (BC), by use of human magnetic multiplex screening assays. Multivariate biomarker panels were developed by identifying the top performing biomolecules from univariate logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) are reported. Results Classification modelling to distinguish PDAC patients from BC showed that a panel of CA19-9 and CXCL10 (IP-10) demonstrated improved diagnostic power over CA19-9 alone (AUC = 0.977 vs. AUC = 0.807, p-value = 0.001). A combined panel including age, BMI and IL-15 showed significant diagnostic power in discriminating PDAC from BBP (AUC = 0.952, p < 0.0001). Finally, a combined panel of IL-8, IL-15 and gender demonstrated diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.830, p < 0.0001) in distinguishing PDAC in the presence of jaundice from benign controls with either jaundice, choledocholithiasis or common bile duct injury. Conclusions Combined biomarker panels improve diagnostic accuracy in PDAC. In addition to CA19-9, cytokines CXCL10, IL-8 and IL-15 are strong additions to diagnostic biomarker panels in PDAC in Black South Africans.
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PLoS One
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Cytokine,Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC),Biomarker panels
Kruger D, Yako YY, Devar J, Lahoud N, Smith M. Inflammatory cytokines and combined biomarker panels in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Enhancing diagnostic accuracy. PLoS One. 2019 Aug 15;14(8):e0221169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0221169.
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