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dc.contributor.authorShapiro, A.E.
dc.contributor.authorKrows, M.
dc.contributor.authorSchaafsma, T.T.
dc.contributor.authorCelum, C.L.
dc.contributor.authorBarnabas, R.V.
dc.contributor.authorvan Heerden, A.
dc.contributor.authorvan Rooyen, H.
dc.contributor.authorSausi, K.
dc.contributor.authorSithole, N.
dc.contributor.authorKoole, O.
dc.identifier.citationhapiro AE( 1,2 ), Krows M( 1 ), Schaafsma TT( 1 ), Celum CL( 1,2 ), Barnabas RV( 1,2 ), van Heerden A( 3,4 ), et al. An implementation study of oral and blood-based HIV self-testing and linkage to care among men in rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Societyen_US
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: In South Africa, men living with HIV are less likely than women to test and know their status (the first UNAIDS “90-90-90” target), and men have worse outcomes across the HIV care cascade. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may address this testing disparity but questions remain over the most effective distribution strategy and linkage following a positive test result. We implemented a men-focused HIVST distribution programme to evaluate components contributing to participation and retention. Methods: We conducted an implementation study of multi-venue HIVST kit distribution in rural and peri-urban KwaZuluNatal (KZN), South Africa. We distributed HIVST kits at community points, workplaces and social venues for on site or takehome use. Clients could choose blood-based or oral-fluid-based HIVST kits and elect to watch an in-person or video demonstration. We provided a USD2 incentive to facilitate reporting test results by phone or SMS. Persons with reactive HIVST results were provided immediate confirmatory tests (if used HIVST on site) or were referred for confirmatory testing (if took HIVST off site) and linkage to care for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. We describe the testing and linkage cascade in this sample and describe predictors of reactive HIVST results and linkage. Results: Between July and November 2018, we distributed 4496 HIVST kits in two regions of KZN (96% to men, median age 28 (IQR 23 to 35). Most participants (58%) chose blood-based HIVST and 42% chose oral-swab kits. 11% of men were testing for the first time. A total of 3902 (83%) of testers reported their test result to the study team, with 314 (8%) screening positive for HIV. Among 274 men with reactive HIVST results, 68% linked to ART; no significant predictors of linkage were identified. 10% of kit users reported they would prefer a different type (oral vs. blood) of kit for repeat testing than the type they used. Conclusions: HIVST is acceptable to men and rapid distribution with optional testing support is feasible in rural and periurban settings. HIVST kits successfully reached younger men and identified undetected infections. Both oral and blood-based HIVST were selected. Scaling up HIVST distribution and guidance may increase the number of first-time testers among men and help achieve the first UNAIDS “90” for men in South Africa.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipWe are grateful to the participants and their communities in KwaZulu-Natal for engaging in this study, as well as the government clinics and health departments of Umgungundlovu and Umkhanyakude districts, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We thank the study outreach teams for their efforts on this project. The work was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.en_US
dc.publisherJohn Wiley and Sonsen_US
dc.rightsAttribution 3.0 United States*
dc.subjectHIV infectionsen_US
dc.subjectSouth Africaen_US
dc.subjectmass screeningen_US
dc.subjectserologic testsen_US
dc.titleAn implementation study of oral and blood-based HIV self-testing and linkage to care among men in rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africaen_US
dc.contributor.departmentMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit (DPHRU), University of the Witwatersranden_US
dc.identifier.journalJournal of the international AIDS Societyen_US
dc.research.unitDevelopmental Pathways for Health Researchen_US

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Attribution 3.0 United States
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