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Structural brain changes in perinatally HIV-infected young adolescents in South Africa

Hoare, J
Fouche, J
Phillips, N
Joska, J.A
Myer, L
Zar, H.J
Stein, D.J
Objective: To describe the structural brain changes, neurocognitive and mental health associations in adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 infection. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Two hundred and four adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV and 44 uninfected frequency-matched controls aged 9-11 years were enrolled within the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. Diffusion tensor imaging and structural brain MRI was done to determine fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, grey and white matter volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surfractional anisotropy area. Correlation coefficients were calculated between total grey and white matter volume, cortical surface area, cortical thickness, whole brain fractional anisotropy and whole brain mean diffusivity and clinical and laboratory parameters including general intellectual functioning, Becks Youth Inventory, Child Motivation Scale and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results: HIV-infected adolescents performed worse than controls on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; P < 0.01). HIV-infected adolescents had significant fractional anisotropy decreases, mean diffusivity increases and decreases in cerebral grey matter volumes, cortical surface area and decreased gyrification. Whole-brain mean fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced in the HIV-infected group (P = 0.031). There were significant correlation coefficients between greater total grey (P = 0.008) and white matter volume (P = 0.004) with the WASI and the Becks self-concept subscale (P = 0.038). Lower whole brain fractional anisotropy was associated with higher scores on the Becks anger (P = 0.018) and disruptive behaviour subscales (P = 0.031). Higher whole brain mean diffusivity was associated with apathy (P = 0.046). Conclusion: The pattern of increased risk of white matter microstructure alterations, smaller grey matter volumes, reduced cortical surface area and decreased gyrification, suggests abnormal neurodevelopment in perinatally infected younger adolescents.
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Wolters Kluwer
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Hoare J, Fouche JP, Phillips N, Joska JA, Myer L, Zar HJ, Stein DJ. Structural brain changes in perinatally HIV-infected young adolescents in South Africa. AIDS. 2018 Nov 28;32(18):2707-2718. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002024.
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