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dc.contributor.authorSkaal, Lindaen
dc.contributor.authorSinclair, Heidien
dc.contributor.authorStein, Dan Jen
dc.contributor.authorMyers, Bronwynen
dc.date.accessioned2015-12-15T13:06:58Zen
dc.date.available2015-12-15T13:06:58Zen
dc.date.issued2015en
dc.identifier.citationProblem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress. 2015: J Gambl Studen
dc.identifier.issn1573-3602en
dc.identifier.pmid25631703en
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s10899-015-9522-5en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11288/583909en
dc.description.abstractLittle is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p < 0.001]. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of free helpline services among gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was supported by funding from the South African National Responsible Gambling Foundation (NRGF). The ideas expressed in this paper are the ideas of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the NRGF. BM and DJS are supported by the South African Medical Research Council.en
dc.languageENGen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10899-015-9522-5en
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Journal of gambling studies / co-sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gamingen
dc.subjectProblem gamblingen
dc.subjectAlcohol useen
dc.subjectPsychological distressen
dc.subjectSouth Africaen
dc.titleProblem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of gambling studies / co-sponsored by the National Council on Problem Gambling and Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gamingen
dc.research.unitAlcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug RUen
dc.date.epub2015-01-29en


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