Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on the febrile response to muramyl dipeptide and lipopolysaccharide in rats
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We have administered aminoguanidine, a relatively specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to rats made febrile with the gram-positive pyrogen, muramyl dipeptide and gram-negative pyrogen, lipopolysaccharide. Sprague-Dawley rats, housed individually at approximately 25 degrees C with a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (lights on 0700 hours), were injected (at 0900 hours) intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg aminoguanidine, 25 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg L-NAME, and intramuscularly with 500 microg/kg muramyl dipeptide or 100 microg/kg lipopolysaccharide. Pyrogen injections were spaced at least 14 days apart. Body temperature was measured throughout the study in unrestrained animals using radio-telemetry. Neither muramyl dipeptide nor lipopolysaccharide-induced fevers were affected by aminoguanidine. However, L-NAME administration inhibited muramyl dipeptide and lipopolysaccharide-induced fevers, but only for the 1st 2-4 h of the fevers (two-way ANOVA, P<0.05). After the initial inhibition, lipopolysaccharide fevers developed normally. Therefore, constitutively expressed nitric oxide synthase appears to be involved in the initial phases of fever genesis of gram-negative and gram-positive fevers in rats. On the other hand, inducible nitric oxide synthase appears not to play a role in these fevers.
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