The 7-Year change in the prevalence of insulin resistance, inflammatory biomarkers, and their determinants in an urban South African population.
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Background Insulin resistance (IR) and subclinical inflammation are involved in pathological pathways leading to the development of biological cardiovascular risk factors and subsequent cardiovascular events. Therefore, monitoring these processes can provide advanced information on the trajectory of cardiovascular risk profile of a population and inform prevention and control strategies. We investigated changes in IR and subclinical inflammation in a population from Cape Town, South Africa, between 2008/09 and 2014/16. Methods In a total of 2503 (n = 797, 2008/09) and (n = 1706, 2014/16) participants, IR was calculated using five indices, i.e., insulin fasting, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, McAuley, and Matsuda while subclinical inflammation was measured using usCRP and gamma GT. Linear and logistic regression analyses and interaction tests were conducted. Results The mean age of participants was 53.2 (2008/09) and 48.2 (2014/16), respectively. In females, IR prevalence significantly decreased between 2008/09 and 2014/2016 by all indices (p ≤ 0.021), while subclinical inflammation prevalence increased from 54.7% (2008/09) to 57.1% (2014/16) based on usCRP and 29.6% to 33.4% based on gamma GT. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for the year of study, age, and gender, prominent factors associated with increased IR or subclinical inflammation were obesity levels measured using waist circumference, glycated haemoglobin, and fasting insulin levels. Conclusions Over the 7-year period, subclinical inflammation increased and this was associated with IR and the metabolic syndrome components, both of which are strong predictors of CVDs. The decrease in IR over the year period reflects in part the much younger age in the second survey.
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