Linking LOXL2 to cardiac interstitial fibrosis
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. CVD pathophysiology is often characterized by increased stiffening of the heart muscle due to fibrosis, thus resulting in diminished cardiac function. Fibrosis can be caused by increased oxidative stress and inflammation, which is strongly linked to lifestyle and environmental factors such as diet, smoking, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. These factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic modifications. Lysyl oxidase like 2 (LOXL2) is responsible for collagen and elastin cross-linking in the heart, and its dysregulation has been pathologically associated with increased fibrosis. Additionally, studies have shown that, LOXL2 expression can be regulated by DNA methylation and histone modification. However, there is a paucity of data on LOXL2 regulation and its role in CVD. As such, this review aims to gain insight into the mechanisms by which LOXL2 is regulated in physiological conditions, as well as determine the downstream effectors responsible for CVD development.
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